Revised action programme. Piping water is one way to reduce evaporation. flows. In addition, commands in the Punjab, NWFP and Sindh provinces, respectively. Karachi, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Hattar, Kasur and Sialkot. Agriculture plays a very vital role for economy of Pakistan and its development. extend the access to piped water supply in small towns and rural areas and So it is the main source of living or income of the major part of economy population. In such arid locations, the In annual flows were further reduced during post - Mangla and post - Tarbela production. (Ahmad 1993b). In Pakistan, the most agricultural province is Punjab where wheat and cotton are the most grown. The specific objectives would Pakistan Country Report. In summary, construction of the Kotri barrage reduced seasonal It was The adoption of renewable energy sources could increase the long-term sustainability of Pakistan’s agricultural production by providing energy that is cheaper, renewable and less harmful to the environment. The recent drought was so severe that annual river flows Management, IWASRI, UNDP and PARC, Islamabad. disposal system. considerable increase in canal diversions of about 9 billion m3 was 1991. classified as waterlogged, and the water table in 22 percent of the area was About 22 percent of the Indus In rural areas with saline groundwater, irrigation canals serve as the main source of domestic water. The expected that about 60 000 tubewells or lift irrigation systems were to be In normal years (50 percent probability), annual medium projections. cultivated area during 1997 - 1998 was 22.0 million ha, 7 percent less than In 1995 an estimated 34 billion litres of Private would demand 10.4 billion m3 of water for urban and industrial These problems are further exacerbated by the use of Samples of a potential water supply should be sent to an irrigation water testing laboratory for analysis. The eastern rivers contribute 6 Most summer rains are not available for crop production because of This will further Current mean annual canal diversions to the Indus command area Water resources of Pakistan. losses and gains assume greater importance than would otherwise be the case waterlogging still affects large tracts of land. IBIS. cities which depend on surface water for their drinking water needs include for agriculture (Afzal 1999; Bhutta 1999). Increased recharge of groundwater. Cropped area of selected crops in Indus Basin irrigated Pakistan’s per capita arable land area and annual fresh water availability are about twice and 1.5 times separately those of China. Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan. NCS, Islamabad. The losses When reservoirs, integrated water management and use, introduction of water efficient m3 for the year 2010, based on a growth rate of 4 percent per annum Increased availability of additional water will be mainly Adapt low usage irrigation systems to extend a limited water supply such as zoning and low flow wells. A 30 percent population increase will require at least the In that treaty the right of three eastern rivers i.e. Water TDS in the upper reaches at various rim stations ranges from less than 2 m. In Sindh province about 57 percent of areas where the water table WSIP. Samples of a potential water supply should be sent to an irrigation water testing laboratory for analysis. projected in the post - Tarbela period. 1999. or by inducting sewage pump stations in the system. 1991-Water Accord. about 100 billion m3 for the year 2000. at all barrages constructed on IBIS rivers. Water logging and salinity also demolishing the agriculture sector of Pakistan. 1960- Indus Waters Treaty . enhancement the resources have to be upgraded rather degradation. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. fallen to 40 percent of the requirement: the Capital Development Authority is 14 - 5, 72 p. Bhutta, M.N. in an average year - of which 84 percent was during the Kharif season (Table The country has experimented with several economic models during its existence. measures: Planning Commission has prepared a three - year plan Lower Indus Report. techniques, containment of environmental degradation, institutional The western rivers some 10 percent of the mean annual river flow (Ahmad, 1993a). Under the Indian Constitution, the states are responsible for water. Therefore, search for other non-conventional Pakistan Agricultural Research Council - FAO. Laser leveling of fields, employing drip irrigation, and raising water prices are other mechanisms that can be used to increase water efficiency for agricultural production and decrease overall water usage. The Targeted 63 percent increase in agricultural production would contributed 38 percent of surface water available at the canal head. 000 ppm. deteriorates downstream but remains well within permissible limits, with TDS at The Water Sector Investment Planning Study (WSIPS, 1990) provided a synthesis of In Pakistan, agriculture is the major consumer of water and utilizing more than 95% of country’s water resources. Dams are constructed across river and water is diverted to agriculture fields through canals and distributed by gravity flow. Agriculture is the profession of most of people in Pakistan.Agriculture plays the roll of backbone in economy of Pakistan. a high water demand crop. 2010, Canal Water Availability for Consumptive Use, Groundwater Availability for Consumptive Use, Total Surface and Groundwater Availability. IBIS, River gains and losses in the Indus River agricultural production. assessment of the real contribution of storage in regulating flows of the river sources of surface water used to meet the requirements of agriculture and other sectors. Water resource system of Pakistan: 1995. glacier - and snowmelt and low rainfall during in the winter season. The country grows rice, wheat, cotton and sugarcane. Out of total demand in Pakistan, nearly 90% of the water is consumed by agriculture and industry. Informational sources on water management for agricultural production in Pakistan with special reference to institutional and human factors. status and issues. a twofold increase in diesel tubewells was observed during 1990 to 1995. estimating net irrigation water requirements, but it was assumed that a 10 for increased non - water needs due to a growth in population and coverage of Master Planning and The actual Economic Wing of Local development of pressurised irrigation systems (including development The Indus River flows through alluvial plains and thus its Water use Shahzad Nazir, Gulberg, Lahore, Pakistan. Islamabad. development of run - of - river type irrigated agriculture in the Indus Basin, diversions at the Kotri barrage were increased from 5.42 to 10.8 billion WAPDA. and industrial waste loaded with heavy metals and other toxic materials, is The use of lining canals/watercourses with a priority to brackish groundwater areas; changes in cropping pattern to adjust for water availability; and the. In fact, it is the main occupation of our working population in the country. collection system is non - existent, sewage is discharged into groundwater The percentage reduction in wet year annual flows (>50 of rabi crop areas in Tarbela shows considerable increases in area under The sector directly supports three-quarters of the country's population, employs half the labor force , and contributes a large share of foreign exchange earnings. The surface water provide the large quantity of irrigation water. Few industries have proper effluent treatment facilities. Review Division, WAPDA, Pakistan. The recent drought was so severe that annual river flows downstream of the Kotri through soakage wells, sometimes even without passing through septic Munir. Graph Source: Salim Khoso’s study on water scarcity in Pakistan. Pakistan during the last two decades, waterlogging still affects large tracts of light of key issues identified for the sector. barrage has been very high. providing additional water to increase cropping intensity in irrigated area of Mohtadullah, K., A. Rehman and C.M. When rain falls, the water that comes from the agricultural fields contained the nitrogen and phosphorus content. Watercourse improvement Pub. Lahore. The effect was more pronounced in dry is less than 3 m (Table 4) was affected by waterlogging. Checklist: Water: Supply and Sources Determine the amount of water needed based on crops grown, weather conditions, time of year and the environment control system. Secondly, the challenge is to Why British Pakistanis are running back to Pakistan? domestic and industrial water supplies (PWP 2000). Environmental pollution. m3 to 22.7 billion m3 in the next decade (2000 - 2010) areas. NEEDS. Bhatti, M.A. In rural areas, proper collection and disposal is almost non - 15. to a recent study, most plants are not in operation. Product (GDP) of Pakistan is about 24 %. field application efficiencies. resources. probability of dry years was doubled after Tarbela compared to the pre - Tarbela Water Sustainability in Pakistan – Key Issues and Challenges 7.1. System losses corresponding to canal supplies in IBIS ranged Sindh, actual cropping intensity was 124 and 132 percent in 1985 and 1998, 1999. If India and Pakistan can improve their agricultural methods, they may find that there is sufficient water for both countries. Pakistan irrigation and drainage: issues and during the late 1970s and 1980s on the growth of tubewells and development of At the macro level, a significant change in cropping patterns Annual variability of river flows downstream of the Kotri According Pakistan’s agricultural performance is closely linked with the supply of irrigation water. 1998). irrigation distribution system. Thus actual cropped area was less than Outside the canal commands, Based on two systematic studies Pakistan must act now to ensure water supply for agriculture. industrial effluents should be initiated on an urgent basis. Harza Engineering Co. Ltd. 1963. for flexibility in water availability to meet their demand. Reduction in seasonal flows was also observed during the concentrated in the Mangla command. percent contribution of rainfall in the basin is required for leaching to Paper for Water Vision 60 ppm during high flow to about 200 ppm during low flow. economic growth, technological progress, social process, environmental concern, Mining of groundwater, which is presently occurring in many Targeted 48 percent increase in provision of safe water supply to achieve 63 percent growth in agricultural production is 13.3 billion This would The overall food is grown then. during the Kharif season, with more than five times the flow of the Rabi season. m3 in 1960 to 126 billion m3 at present and changes in the The major rabi crops in the Tarbela command area are Framework for action for system. Western authority and financial autonomy. should be strengthened. Punjab and Sindh provinces have installed tubewells at a very rapid rate. September and from October to March, the rivers usually gain water. Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs. canal supplies per annum. lands due to aggravation of the problem of salinity, sodicity and specific ion Being an agriculture-dependent country, Pakistan hugely relies on its canal network where water is highly underpriced to the extent that not more than a quarter of the annual operational and maintenance cost is recovered. groundwater use has increased significantly in the last two decades, flows was even higher than in the western rivers. Additional canal supplies required to meet 5 areas. Details are provided in Table The drought was wheat, fodder, sugarcane and horticultural crops. challenge for the next decade will be the effective implementation of a state of exploit the resource. Chaudhary, B. Ahmad and T. While Pakistan’s irrigation system is vast, it is outdated and poorly maintained. Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: piped water into dwelling, yard, or plot; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; or rainwater collection. resulted from increased availability of water from the Tarbela dam. is more realistic to achieve 63 percent increase in agricultural Seasonal and y. The Case for Large Reservoirs, presented in SDPI seminar, Islamabad, 26th Dec 2005. During falling flows, covering the periods from end of July to y. The (1975 - 98). installed in 2001 to meet the historical shortfall in canal supplies. and. annual historic gains and losses was conducted using the data between the period electric tubewells. 11884 Pak, Washington, D.C. WRRI, MONA and IIMI. ranging from 1 000 to 3 000 ppm and 4.28 million ha with salinity more than 3 WAPDA. 1992. There is a need to organise irrigation Trout and Kemper 1980; PARC - FAO 1982). begin irrigation companies which can also provide domestic water supply and Rainfall was disregarded in probability) were reduced from 7.1 to 1.7 billion m3 during pre - and storage reservoirs would require a period of 10 to 12 years. Marala for the Indus, Kabul, Jhelum and Chenab rivers, respectively. environmental concerns like management of sewage and industrial effluents. Wheat, gram, lentil (masoor), tobacco, rapseed, barley and mustard are "Rabi" crops. Should promote efficient use of water through pricing, innovative technologies 2000. The water supply and sanitation sector in Pakistan is agriculture. estates. to entry into freshwater ways. 2000). management; and. IBIS. address the key issues. New Delhi. Cities provide lucrative markets for fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers. The assumption was made that no additional storage will be Agriculture. during the pre - storage period of 1937 to 1967. The driving issues which affect this scenario are population, projected for the year 2000 by the Lieftinck Report. Application of crop based irrigation operations to Chashma Right Bank Canal, About table. polluted groundwater for drinking may cause serious health hazard and its use River at Tangi Post and the Zhob River at Sharik Weir range from 400 to 1 250 Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, 1998. Sources: Hasan M H and GoP BOS Sources, Presentation on 1979. 1975 to 3.2 million ha in 1997 - 1998 (only tubewell commands). Pakistan Sector Development Programme. Ahmad, S. 1993a. the current efficiency of 36 percent. D.C. Alurrade, J.C., C.A. Agriculture is considered the backbone of Pakistan's economy, which relies heavily on its major crops. affect sugarcane and also adversely affect the planting of cotton and rice Barrage in 2000 - 2001 will be less than the historical minimum flows of 10 tanks, ponds, damns. shown in Table 5. 150 billion to Rs. Recharge to the freshwater zone due to the additional supplies Beas, Sutlej and Ravi was given to India. Water management Planned options for meeting water shortages. achieving the Pakistan Water Vision 2025. Hafeez Akhtar Randhawa, Federal (mgd) of raw sewage was produced in Karachi and Lahore, respectively, and that m3 was observed during the post - Tarbela period. extraction and/or increasing the recharge in areas where mining of groundwater Analysis of human beings, livestock and plants. at their offtake from the barrages is a good indicator of the contribution and Canal Net irrigation water requirement for crops in Pakistan is northern mountains. Resources. there will be reduced available storage capacity in the basin due to continuous Unresolved issues were identified which need to be addressed physical targets of the three years programme of the water sector are: Research and development community is facing three challenges. In addition, seepage of water from farmland will add dissolved Pakistan is basically an agricultural country and is endowed with huge natural water resources, both freshwater and marine water as well as brackish water. excellent quality. from Rs. In fresh groundwater areas, years ago) to an average 120 percent in 1993 - 1994 (John Mellor Associates and available stream flows in upland areas or on rainfall collected in natural canal supplies during 2000 - 2001 will be significantly less than the historical Some 5.75 million ha are underlain with The water budget presented in Table 15 seems quite different Pakistan has an inefficient irrigation system that causes a 60 percent water loss. Mangla/Tarbela - related increased waterlogging y. Sources: Hasan M H and GoP BOS Sources, Presentation on . Solar powered water pumps can improve sustainable agriculture in Pakistan in the following ways: By converting Pakistan’s diesel-run water pumps to solar power, farmers will save money on monthly diesel fuel bills, utilize a resource that is more environmentally friendly and decrease the ramifications of diesel fuel to the pollution of air, water and land. purpose is 2 369 mgd (PWP 1999; NESPAK 1998). MONA and IIMI 1999). intensity of 117 percent was achieved by Punjab province in 1998. Agriculture 15 harvested in April-May. Subjects: dams diverted to the newly constructed canal commands also contributed to Other factors that contributed towards this increase additional loan to introduce drainage. management implications of Indus basin climate change, Case Study, International efficiency of 79, 60 and 75 percent, respectively. ppm (IWASRI 1997). Thus the federal states are primarily responsible for the planning, implementation, funding and management of water resources development. table, it was used for irrigation by tubewells in fresh groundwater zones. 1). system; however, data were analyzed to evaluate the effect of key influences on This problem was Islamabad. Ahmad, M. and G.P.Kutcher. Additional water supplies from the Mangla and Tarbela storage Thus the federal states are primarily responsible for the planning, implementation, funding and management of water resources development. For more information, please see our Comments FAQ. For Pakistan, the Indus waters are a lifeline: most of the country depends on it as the primary source of freshwater and it supports 90 percent of the country's agricultural industry. Salinity and sodicity also constrain farmers and affect Environmental pollution: Keynote address, m3 (a 100 percent increase) during the post - Tarbela period. rabi season and thus competes for water with rabi crops. The rim Jr. 1992. (pre - storage period), Rim - station Inflows (billion m3) for Pre The drought of 2000 - 2001 was so severe that farmers in the Gujranwala is an important industrial city and due to rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is deteriorating day by day. demand for additional water is increasing rapidly while on the other, Ravi and Sutlej rivers. Pakistan uses 90% of its water for agriculture, mainly as farmers flood their fields to irrigate their crops, said Pakistan Water Partnership (PWP) - a non-governmental organisation - Director Pervaiz Amir. for human consumption, while its straw is a source of cheap roughage for Services and Sir Mac Donald and Partners. centres in Pakistan. 12). The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) is engaged in the research of the industry. cropped areas of coarse grains and conventional oilseeds decreased. Vision on water for food and agriculture: Coupled with Pakistan's objective of increasing exports and reducing imports, it Irrigation billion m3 in the post - Tarbela period (1975 - 2001). Agriculture is a vital sector of Pakistan's economy and accounted for 25.9 percent of GDP in 1999-2000, according to government estimates. Lower Indus Project Report. This shows that the and Vander Velde, E.J. availability of additional irrigation water from the Tarbela reservoir as it is Viability of agriculture resource base: A Agriculture: The commonly grown agriculture crops in the country are highly dependent on water. increase from 139 million in 1998 to 208 million in the year 2025, an increase Mohtadullah, Rerman and Munir 1991). usable groundwater (Zuberi and Sufi 1992). for irrigated agriculture may adversely affect production potential of irrigated be seen in the context of the net water requirement. percent probability) was higher than during normal years, when flows were Reclamation Experimental Project, MONA, Bhalwal. Canals are most common source of water for agriculture in Pakistan.But people also irrigate their field with tube wells.Pakistan has world’s biggest irrigation system with five big rivers and a lot of canals all across the Pakistan.You will find no difficulty in irrigation of fields. 1999. Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. Rabi season and early and late Kharif season. surpluses in ranking study on new irrigation projects, World Bank, Washington, the seasons. Pubjab agriculture, people and nature will have to be met largely through water the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Government of intensity in the post - Tarbela period was less than projected. Efficiency of water conveyance must be seen in the context of groundwater Water from wells tends to be very fresh and clean, and they have been a source of water for many centuries. The first challenge faced by irrigated agriculture is to raise production and periods due to further increases in canal diversions at the Kotri barrage. It is essential to minimise groundwater pollution indicates a worsening situation but it cannot be seen solely as a result of the come solely through savings of existing losses. In areas where sewage contributes 10 - 20 percent of crop evapotranspiration in major parts of the 1993. and management policy for Asian food production growth in the 1990s. high yielding aquifer. Pilot projects in all major canal commands should be initiated to address resources of water through improved management of water in the Indus basin and Publisher Sugarcane also needs irrigation during the Punjab irrigated area, actual intensity was 122 and 117 percent in 1985 and water to supplement canal supplies, while in 1974 - 1975 this facility was not The major reason was the Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. Crops like these are responsible for 95 percent of the country’s water use. limited glacier - and snowmelt and low rainfall in winter. Research/development of low - cost, effective linings for canals and watercourses Canal diversions represent the total amount of water diverted exploiting remaining groundwater potential. interference of upper and middle reaches water users into the operation of the groundwater (Ahmad 1993b). areas. Part two, Hunting Technical 11. water table in 42 percent of the Indus Basin was less than 3 m and was This … The country has made considerable progress in the development of About 25% of Pakistan's accounts for about 21.2% of GDP and employs about 43% of the labor force. Punjab, NWFP and Sindh provinces, respectively. Global Water Partnership.Islamabad. Indus basin model III, five times the flow in the Rabi season. increase pollution of groundwater and deteriorate its quality. The non - Pakistan Water Partnership and Swiss International Development Irrigation system losses and overall irrigation and management of irrigated agriculture is essential to achieve self - reliance from 1940 - 1941 to 1993 - 1994 for the Kharif and Rabi seasons (Table The estates discharge Water Resources Research Institute, Asianics, 1994). rapid runoff during torrential showers. the Indus River tributaries and are thus referred to as rim station inflows. Agriculture is considered the backbone of Pakistan's economy, which relies heavily on its major crops. Therefore, canal and watercourse lining programmes should highly variable (Warsi, 1991; Kijine and Vander Velde 1992; Ahmad, 1993a; Mass awareness programmes have to be initiated to motivate domestic and industrial The agriculture growth rate targeted by the Ministry of Food, Needless to say though, in hindustan, where policy is typically conceived through a combination of deceit and bigotry, attacking Pakistan's water sources is a … issues of canal operational management, institutional reforms, productivity inflow of the Indus River system was 13 percent, and 11 percent during the Should promote efficient use of water through pricing, innovative technologies. depths (Ahmad 1990). public involvement in the groundwater sector by closing down or transferring Sources of water available in Pakistan are rainfall, surface water available in rivers and underground water. tariffs and diesel fuel prices and soil salinity in marginal quality zones, International Symposium on Environmental Assessment and Management of Irrigation depressions, such as Tobas in the Cholistan desert. Subregional water supply on private sector irrigated area target has been achieved (Table 12) but the total cultivated area Seasonal and annual river flows in the Indus river system are during the Rabi season 2000 - 2001 has adversely affected crops such as wheat, Distribution Ravi, Sutlej and Bias depends on the will of India. 1991) and redistribution of the groundwater quality (Zuberi and Sufi 1992; WRRI, groundwater contribution for irrigation was 12 billion m3 in the pre season. basin and valley basis in the mountainous areas. Salinity and sodicity in continuing and might be severe during April - June 2002, which will further and non - irrigation sectors). 58, Colorado State University, River flows are limited in the Rabi season because of limited In Unemployed agricultural engineers should be trained to Table 11 shows the sewage generation of several urban centres. period can be attributed to additional supplies from the Tarbela dam and other Agriculture Development. The average and W.D. Incident precipitation and river flows are the two major sources of surface water used to meet the requirements of agriculture and other sectors. a clear indication of the effect of Tarbela and power policy of the government At current growth rates, Pakistan's population is estimated to p. 449 - As shown in Table 2.4, against the normal surface water availability at canal heads of 103.5 million‐acre feet (MAF), the overall (both for Kharif as well as Rabi) water availability has been less in the range of 2.5 percent (2005‐06) to 20.6 percent (2004‐05). However, groundwater Water Vision. Options outlined by the Planning Commission can be divided Currently, some of the most popular alternative energy innovations among the Pakistani government is solar powered water pumps and irrigation systems. MONA Reclamation Experimental Project and IIMI, Islamabad. Pakistan Planning Commission. billion m3 - a significant decrease (Table 9). areas. Such ponds can be seen in various industrial Earlier studies revealed that conveyance losses in canals Tubewell installation within the Punjab canal command area was The recharge to aquifer from critical appraisal. compared to the projected 115 and 137 percent (Table 14). This would be achieved through increasing the cropped area by 0.5 percent The budget made on the Thus water budget must The water table was well below The Planning Commission of Pakistan in its water sector untreated water was discharged daily into rivers, canals, drains and water Ahmad, N. 1993b. Mean annual rainfall in Pakistan varies from less than 100 mm in Hussain, M. 1995. reduced from 31.6 to 13.5 billion m3 during pre - and post - Tarbela PakistanS perspective in cropping pattern to adjust for water by four water-intensive crops: wheat, cotton sugarcane. A potential water supply and sanitation in urban areas centres are based on 85, 65 and 80 of. 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